On a spring day in September 1998, three non-South Africans were killed on a train travelling from Pretoria to Johannesburg. These killings were allegedly the work of South Africans blaming foreigners for the country’s high levels of unemployment. Less than two years later, on 4 August 2000, Sudanese refugee James Diop was seriously injured in a similar assault. Diop was travelling on a train from Pretoria to Pretoria North when he was attacked by a group of armed men and thrown from the train. In another incident, Roy Ndeti, a Kenyan who came to South Africa in search of better job opportunities, was awoken one morning in early August to be confronted by armed attackers, who shot him and his room-mate before fleeing, taking nothing with them.

Xenophobia in South Africa manifests itself in a number of ways, ranging from derogatory name-calling to harassment and physical attacks. As these incidents show, African foreigners in particular are blamed for South Africa’s persistent social and economic problems: the high crime rate; the spread of HIV/AIDS; and the lack of jobs. Attackers make no distinction between legal and illegal migrants. For refugees fleeing social strife and warfare in their home country, xenophobic incidents are of particular concern.


Poverty been a cancan-warm that has eaten deeply, the heart of our continent is the cause of several vices. In a bid to reduce poverty we have created platforms that are aimed at given our people a new song to sing.

The development objective of the Central Highlands Poverty Reduction Project for ,major African nations is to enhance living standards by improving livelihood opportunities in project communes of upland districts of the central highlands of Sudan. The project has four components. The first component is village and commune infrastructure development. It has following two sub-components:

(i) support the design, construction or repair of small-scale village, and commune-level infrastructure (such as simple access roads, terracing, irrigation or water supply, basic social infrastructure, etc.) through the provision of block grants; and

(ii) finance sub-projects for the repair, operation, and maintenance (O and M) of communal infrastructure. The second component, sustainable livelihoods development will support ethnic minorities (EMs) and other households in the targeted areas to enhance their food security and nutrition, their productive capacities for more diversified income sources, and their linkages to selected agricultural markets. It has following two sub-components: (i) target chronically poor and at risk households; and

(ii) aim to develop productive partnerships (PP) between farmer groups and agribusinesses (ABs) which are operating in the targeted areas for proven commercially viable agriculture or agro-forestry endeavors. The third component is connective infrastructure development, capacity building, and communications. It has following three sub-components:

(a) finance selective intra- and inter-commune level infrastructure that will strengthen physical connectivity within and between local economic zones;

(b) support training and capacity building at all project levels for all aspects of project management; and

(c) support communications activities to ensure beneficiaries, project staff, key stakeholders, and the public at large are aware of the project objectives.

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